martes, 21 de enero de 2014

I. Ethology (list of cases) -- Part 1


On this first list Homo sapiens is involved in only 13 cases: numbers 22, 68, 89, 103, 105, 299, 323, 374, 375, 410, 411, 482 and 483.  This is merely 2.6 % of the total of 493 included in the  list.  There are 26 uncertain cases ( 5.3 %): numbers 24, 26, 45, 90, 91, 111, 128, 136, 168, 189, 213, 215, 224, 231, 255, 295, 314, 334, 335, 344, 346, 375, 396, 429, 490 and 492.
 
Outline
 
A. Feeding habits 
       1. Depredation
       2. Parasitism
       3. Other
B. Reproduction
C. Locomotion
1. Aquatic
2. Terrestrial
3. Aerial
4. Arboreal
D. Communication
E. Defensive means
F. Social habits
G. Construction
H. Diurnal vs. nocturnal habits
  I. Migration
J. Habitat
K. Other
 
 
 
A. Feeding habits 
 
1. Depredation
      a. Animals in general
            --ONLY predator that allures the prey by pretending to be a flower (orchid mantis) [a case of  phytomimesis that must also be included in the "Morphology" section] (compare # 66) [1]
            --ONLY African predator that ranges widely and constantly (the wild dog of the savanna, Lycaon pictus) [2]
            --Species that are not a source of food for some predator [3]
            --Predators that do not choose as victims (= prey) the weakest individuals [4]
            --Localization of the prey through indications other than motion [5]
            --Prey larger than the predator (cp. # 61) [6]
            --Slow agony of the prey [7]
            --Predators that kill more prey than is necessary [8]
            --High mountain predators [9]
            --Matriphagy (actually, more like a case of altruism for the subsection "Reproduction") [10]
            --Embryonic cannibalism (placed under "Reproduction" [# 160])
      b. Specific groups
            Vertebrates
                  Mammals
                          In general
                               --ONLY sea herbivore (the dugong, Dugong dugon) [11]
                               --Attacks on motionless prey [12]
                               --Nocturnal predators that are unafraid of campfires [13]
                               --"Protean" behavior in predators [14]
                               --Predators that know how to deal with the quills of porcupines [15]
                           Specific groups or species
                                   Order Carnivora (not to be confused with the broader term "carnivores")
                                         In general
                                               --ONLY filter feeder (the crab-eating seal) [cp. #s 101 & 119] [16]
                                               --ONLY species with a mainly vegetarian diet (the giant panda) [17]
                                               --Exclusively carnivorous diet (cp. # 109) [18]
                                         Specific group
                                               Felines
                                                    --ONLY species that hunts in teams (the lion) [cp. # 25] [19]
                                                    --ONLY big one that does not bite the prey in the neck in order to kill it  but through the skull (the jaguar) [20] 
                                                    --Joining of the male lion in the hunt [21]
                                   Primates
                                        --ONLY species that fish (the Indonesian crab-eating macaque and the human species) [cp. #s 253 & 463] [22]
                                   Bats
                                        --Fishing [23]
                 Birds
                       In general
                             --ONLY one (?) that uses its wings as a fishing net  [the cassowary] [24]
                             --Team hunting (cp.  # 19) [25]
                             --Species that follow the army (or "legionary") ants in search of food (?) [26]
                             --Processing of the prey before swallowing (cp.  # 40) [27]
                       Specific groups
                             Raptorial species
                                   Order Falconiformes (diurnal raptorials)
                                          --Mainly carrion-eating  species (cp. #s 122, 124, 125 & 149) [28]
                                          --Species that do not feed on live vertebrates (cp. #s 35, 39 & 100) [29]
                                   Order Strigiformes (owls)
                                          --Interceptors [30] 
                             Parrots
                                   --ONLY predators (two of the seven endemic New Zeland species: the kea [Nestor notabilis] and the Antipodes parakeet [Cyanoramphus unicolor]) [31]
                              Marine species
                                   -- … that are not piscivorous [32]
                             Condors
                                   --Predatory behavior [33]
                 Reptiles
                        Snakes
                              -- … that do not find their prey through the sense of smell [34]
                              -- … that do not feed on live individuals (cp.  #s 29, 39 & 100) [35]
                         Chameleons
                              --Non-insectivorous species [36]
                  Fish
                        In general
                              --ONLY species that shoots water jets up in the air in order to catch its prey (the archerfish) [37] 
                              --ONLY ones that shoot water jets in order to bring out  prey hidden in the sand (triggerfish and pufferfish, both groups belonging to the order Tetraodontiformes) [38]              
                              --Nonpredators (= carnivores) [cp. #s 29, 35 & 100] [39]
                              --Predators that do not swallow their prey whole  (cp. # 27) [40]
                         Specific groups
                              Sharks
                                      --Species with diurnal hunting habits [41]
             Invertebrates
                    Insects
                         In general
                              Cannibalism
                                     --Adults that feed on (defective ) larvae of their own species [42]
                                     -- … as a means of population control [43]
                                     -- … in nonpredatory species [44]
                               Other
                                       --Capture of vertebrates (?) [cp. # 54] [45]
                         Specific  groups
                                Caterpillars (= larvae) 
                                       --ONLY one that attacks shelled animals  (Hyposmocoma molluscivora) [46]
                                       --Entomophagy (rather than phytophagy, as in most cases) [47]
                                       --Predation [48]
                                Lepidopterons (butterflies and moths)
                                       In general
                                            --ONLY one  that lies in ambush (the caterpillars of the Hawaiian moths of the gender Eupithecia) [49]
                                            --Depredation [50]
                                       Specific groups
                                              Hymenopterans (ants, bees, wasps…)
                                                     --same [51]
                                Beetles
                                                     --Larvae that attack wasp nests and beehives [52]
                      Other
                             Spiders
                                             -- … that do not build spider webs [53]
                                             --Capture of vertebrates (cp. # 45) [54]
                             Diatoms
                                             --Heterotrophy [55]
 
2. Parasitism
      a. Animales in general
                --Species that do not harbor parasites [56]
                --Nonparasitic species (only one fifth!) [57]
                --Endoparasites that do not lodge in the intestinal tract, the body cavity (coelom?) or the circulatory system (but in the muscles or the nervous system) [58]
                --Self-parasitism [59]
                --Phyla that do not include parasitic species [60]
                --Parasites larger than the host (cp. # 6) [61]
                --Parasitoids that are not free-living in the adult stage [62]
                --Death of the host caused by the parasite [63]
                --Parasites that do not affect 1) the growth rate, 2) the survival skills and 3) the reproductive efficiency of the host [64]
                --Homeotherms that do not harbor lice [65]
                --Aggresive mimesis in which the parasite manipulates its two hosts in order to move from one of them to the other one (cp. # 1) [66]
                --Species that cause galls and are not insects (cp. #s 76 & 77) [67]
        b. Specific groups
                 Vertebrates
                       In general
                             --ONLY one that is parasitic on the human specie (the candiru, a silurus or catfish, Vandellia cirrhosa) [68]
                             --ONLY ones that feed exclusively on blood (the three species of vampire bats) [69]
                             --Parasitic lifestyle [70]
                       Specific groups
                             Mammals
                                     -- … on which more than one species of Anoplura (sucking lice [cp. #s 83 & 84]) is parasitic [71]
                             Fish
                                   Lampreys
                                            --Nonparasitic lifestyle [72]
                                            --Species that are parasitic on hosts other than fish [73]
                   Invertebrates
                        Insects
                             In general
                                   --ONLY order that includes parasites on the eggs of other insects (the hymenopterans) [74]
                                   --Species that are not attacked by some parasitoid [75]
                                   --Species that cause galls (cp. #s 67 & 77) [76]
                                   --Plants devoid of their own gall-forming fly (cp. #s 67 & 76) [77]
                                   --Said flies that are not themselves hosts to chalcid wasps [78]
                             Specific groups
                                   Lice
                                         In general
                                        --ONLY one that does not spend all of its life cycle on the host (…) [79]
                                        --ONLY endoparasite (…) [80]
                                        --Wide variety of hosts [81]
                                        --Predatory hosts [82]
                                  Specific group
                                   Mallophages (biting lice [cp. # 71])  
                                         --Habitual haemophages [83]
                                         --Hosts that are not birds [84]
                                    Lepidopterons (butterflies and moths)
                                         --ONLY family of parasitic larvae (…) [85]
                       Crustaceans
                              --Parasitic lifestyle [86]
                       Snails
                              --same [87]
                       Protozoa
                             Dinoflagellates
                                    --same [88]
                             Ciliates
                                    --ONLY one parasitic on the human race (the Balantidium coli) [89]
                       Ctenophores
                              --ONLY known endoparasite (?) […] [90]
                      
 
3.Other
       a. Animals in general
                 --ONLY ones that can open coconuts (the rat, the coconut crab [?] and human beings) [cp. # 299] [91]
                 --ONLY one that uses its nose to take up water to drink (the obvious case of the elephant) [92]
                 --ONLY ones that lead individuals of other species to food sources to their own benefit (one or two species of  indicator birds, honey birds or honeyguides [family Indicatoridae, order Piciformes]) [93]                 
                 --ONLY one that drinks the milk of other species (the human species) [94]
                 --Self-cannibalism [95]                
                 --Intake of …
                         -- … water by indirect means [96]
                         -- … salt water in animals other than elasmobranchs (a subclass of cartilaginous [gristly] fish that  includes sharks, rays and others) and marine bony fish and birds (cp. #s 102 & 126) [97]
                 --Indiscriminate ingestion (cp. # 135) [98]
                 --Ingestion of wax (cp. # 136) [99]
                 --Diet that does not consist of living organisms (cp. #s 29, 35 & 39) [100]
        b. Specific groups 
Chordates
       --Filter feeders (cp. #s 16 & 119) [101]
              Vertebrates
                     Mammals
                            In general
                               --ONLY one that habitually drinks salt water (the tamar wallaby [Macropus eugenii], a tiny kangaroo) (cp. #s 97 & 124) [102]
                               --ONLY ones that voluntarily drink amounts of ethanol large enough to be classified as "alcoholic" (the pig and the human species) [103]
                         Specific groups
                         Primates
                               Apes
                                      --ONLY one that feeds almost exclusively on grass (the gelada [Theropithecus gelada] of the Simien Mountains of Ethiopia) [104]
                               Human species
                                      --Traditional eating habits as a cause of malnutrition (rather than the scarcity of food) [a case more adequately placed under the category "Medicine"] [105]
                          Cetaceans
                                  In general
                                        --ONLY vegetarian (the Cameroon freshwater porpoise [dolphin], Sotalia teuszii) [106]
                                  Specific group
                                        Whalebone whales (or "baleen whales", one of the two groups of cetaceans [suborder Mysticeti])
                                               --ONLY one that feeds at the bottom (the gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus) [107]
                          Bears
                                  --ONLY one that is  not omnivorous (the polar bear) [108]
                          Carnivores (order Carnivora, not "carnivores" in the broad sense)
                                  --Vegetarianism (cp. # 18) [109]
                          Michrochiropterans (one of the two groups of bats, fruit bats being the other one)
                                  --Species that are not insectivorous [110]
                          Antelopes
                                  --ONLY one (?) not exclusively vegetarian (the duiker) [111]
                  Birds
                         In general
                               --ONLY nocturnal one that is frugivorous (fruit-eating) [the oilbird, Steatornis caripensis] [112]
                               --ONLY one that is exclusively a foliophage (leaf eater) [the hoatzín, Opisthocornus hoazin] [cp. #s 115 & 117] [113]
                               --ONLY ones that eat their own feathers (those belonging to the order Podicipediformes) [114]
                               --Foliophagy (cp. #s 113 & 117) [115]
                               --Ingestion of …
                                      -- … "hairy" caterpillars [116] 
                               -- … low-calorie food (cp. #s 113 & 115) [117]
                         --Food storage [118]
                                --Filter feeders (cp. #s 16 & 101) [119]
                                Specific groups
                                       Antartic fauna
                                            --Species that find their food on land [120]
                                Storks
                                      -- … that feed on relatively dry land [121]
                                      -- … that are carrion-eating (cp. #s 28, 124, 125 & 149) [122]
                                 Parrots
                                      --Species that feed on soft foodstuffs [123]
                                 Raptorials
                                 Hawks
                                      --Carrion eaters (cp. #s 28, 122, 125 & 149) [124]
                                 Owls
                                      --same (cp. #s 28, 122, 124 & 149) [125]
                   Reptiles
                         In general
                              --ONLY ones that drink salt water (the marine species: the sea iguana, crocodile,  turtles and snakes) [cp. #s 97 & 102] [126]
                              --Vegetarians other than turtles [127]
                         Specific groups
                               Snakes
                                     --Chewing (exceptional in reptiles in general?) [128]
                                Turtles
                                      --Specialized (rather than omnivorous) diet  [129]
                   Amphibians
                         --ONLY vegetarians (tadpoles) [130]
                   Fish
                          Cartilaginous (or "gristly")
                               Sharks
                                    --ONLY one that feeds on plankton (the whale shark, Rhincodon typus, the largest fish) [131]
                                Rays
                                    --ONLY one that does the same (the manta ray, genus Manta, now two species) [132]
            Invertebrates
                    Arthropods
                         In general
                              --Ingestion of the exoskeleton after the moulting [133]
                         Specific groups
                               Insects
                                    In general
                                         --Mutual feeding between adults and larvae [134]
                                         --Herbivores with an indiscriminate diet (cp. # 98) [135]
                                    Specific groups
                                          Lepidopterons (butterflies and moths)
                                                --Moth (?) that feeds on beeswax (an only case?) [cp. # 99] [136]
                                                --Larvae that are not fitophages [137]
                                                --Stationary flight while sipping (case also included under "Locomotion") [138]
                                                --Specialists [139]
                                                --Adults …
                                                         -- … that do not eat (cp. # 148) [140]
                                                         -- … that do not feed on nectar [141]
                                          Hymenopterans
                                                 In general
                                                     --Taking of food other than pollen, nectar or honeydew [142]
                                                 Specific group
                                          Ants
                                                 --Larvae that do not feed on regurgitated liquids [143]
                                                 --Live "wine skins" [144]
                                      Other
                                              Cockroaches
                                                     --Ingestion of wood [145]
                                              Beetles
                                                     --Nonvegetarians [146]
                                              Termites
                                                     --Food gathering out in the open [147]
                                              Fireflies
                                                     --Adults that eat (cp. # 140) [148]
                              Crustaceans
                                     Crabs
                                            --Carrion eaters (cp. #s 28, 122, 124 & 125) [149]
                     Mollusks
                            --Ingestion of large morsels [150]
                     Protozoans
                          --Absorption (rather than ingestion) of food [151]
 
 
B. Reproduction

1. Animals in general
          --ONLY gastric-brooding species (two now apparently extinct frogs [genus Rheobatrachus]) [152]
          --Hybridization [153]    
          --Monogamy (cp. #s 169 & 181) [154]
          --Polyandria [155]    
          --Protogyny [156]
          --Hermaphroditism [157]
          --Intersexuality in higher forms [158]
          --Unisexuality (absence of males) [159]
          --Embryonic cannibalism [160]
          --Interspecific discrimination in the female [161]
          --Care of the young [162]
          --Greater care of the young in the male [163]
          --Collaboration of the sexes in the family chores [164]
          --Rivalry in females to obtain partners [165]
          --Helpers of the parents [166]
          --Procreation more than once a year [167]
 
2. Vertebrates
         a. Mammals
                     In general
                          --ONLY one (?) that does not lick the newborn in order to dry them (the llama) [168]
                          --Monogamy (only 3 % of all species) [cp. #s 154 & 181] [169]
                          --Protracted copulation [170]
                          --Mating at any time of year [171]
                          --Copulation more humano (face to face) [172] 
                          --Noncetacean species that copulate in the water [173]
                          --Species in which copulation is carried out in a hanging position [174]
                          --Species that are not both polygynous and polygamous [175]
                     Specific groups
                           --Absence of a "copulatory link" in canids, ursids or procyonids (dog, bear and raccoon families) [176]
           b. Birds
                      In general
                             --ONLY ones that carry construction materials lodged in the plumage (some lovebirds [African parrots of the genus Agapornis] and the hanging parrots [genus Loriculus], close relatives of the former) [177]
                             --ONLY ones that carry water for the young in the plumage (the sandgrouses [genus Pterocles]) [178]
                             --ONLY ones that bury the eggs (the megapodes [incubator birds or mound-builders], family Megapodiidae) [cp. #s  189 & 314] [179]                                      
                             --Compulsory inclosure of the female during the incubation (cp. #s 198 & 199) [180]
                             --Nonmonogamous species (cp. #s 154 & 169) [181] 
                             --Formation of the couple long before copulation [182]
                             --Formation of the couple before the male acquires a territory of his own  [183]
                             --Inversion of  the tasks assigned to each genus (care of eggs and young in the male)  [order Charadriiformes (cp. the cases of the sea horse or hippocampus and the midwife toad, Alytes, in the  category "Physiology"); possibly exceptional in all of the Animal Kingdom] [184]
                             --Absence of a nest [185]
                             --Species that nest in cavities and have incubation and rearing periods that are longer than those of the species that nest out in the open [186]
                             --Use of substances or structures of the own body as construction materials [187]
                             --Species in which the progeny is aided as it breaks out of the egg [188]
                             --Species in which the young are not looked after (ONLY the megapodes?) [cp. #s 179 & 314] [189]
                             --Species in which the young are carried on the back [190]
                             --Species in which the singing does not identify the gender [191]
                             --Species in which it identifies the female [192]
                             --Singing in the female [193]
                             --Singing of the female without the accompaniment of the male [194]
                             --Small birds that accept another's eggs [195]
                             --Bloody fighting (cp. # 209) [196]
                     Specific groups
                           Hornbills
                                 -- … that do not nest in holes in tree trunks (cp. #s 200 & 201) [197]
                                 -- … whose female does not remain in compulsory enclosure during the period of incubation (cp. #s 180 & 199) [198]
                                 -- … whose male helps to enclose her (cp. #s 180 & 198) [199]
                           Order Psittaciformes (parrots)
                                 --ONLY one that builds nests in the open air (instead of nesting in cavities) [the Myopsitta monachus] (cp. #s 197 & 201) [200]
                           Order Strigiformes (owls)
                                 --Species that do not nest in hollows (cp. #s 197 & 200) [201]
                           Order Ciconiiformes (storks, herons, ibices, spoonbills, flamingos …)
                                  In general
                                        --Species that nest on the ground [202]
                                  Specific group 
                                        Storks
                                              -- … that do not nest in trees [203]
                           Swans
                                   -- … that breed in colonies [204]
                                             
          c. Reptiles 
                   In general
                         --Aquatic reproduction [205]
                         --Incubation [206]
                         --Care of the eggs [207]
                         --Care of the young [208]
                    Specific groups
                          Chameleons
                               --Bloody fighting (cp. # 196) [209]
                          Sea snakes
                               --ONLY feature of their behavior --reproduction-- in which they differ from one another [210]
          d. Amphibians
                     In general
                           --Terrestrial reproduction (copulation and spawning) [211]
                           --Care of the eggs [212]
                           --Care of the young (?) [213]
                           --Species in which the eggs are carried around [214]
                      Specific group
                            Anurans (or "batrachians" [frogs])
                                  -- … that carry the tadpoles [215]
          e. Fish
                    --ONLY builder of floating nests (Gymnarchus niloticus, an electric fish) [216]
                    --ONLY one that practices brood parasitism (the Synodontis multipunctata, a catfish) [217]
                    --Spawning out of the water [218]           
                    --Spawning on rocky substrate in species that look after the eggs [219]                   
                    --Spawning on sandy surfaces [220]
                    --Egg hiders that …
                              -- … are not benthic excavators [221]
                              -- … hide them for a reason other than to protect them from predators [222]                                                   
                    --Care of the eggs in the female [223]
                    --Care of the young (?) [224]
                    --Availing oneself of another species' defensive means in order to protect the eggs [225]
                    --Species in which the eggs are carried in the gill chambers [226]
                    --Species in which both genders do oral (mouth) incubation [227]
                    --Use of the mouth cavity as a shelter for the young following the period of mouth incubation [228]                  
                    --Species that do not deposit great quantities of small eggs [229]
 
3. Invertebrates
         a. In general
                  --Care of the eggs and/or the young [230]
                  --Simultaneous hermafroditism (exceptional only in invertebrates?) [231]
 
         b. Specific groups
                   Arthropods
                        In general
                              --Absence of a transfer of sperm in spermatophores [232]
                              --Hermaphroditism [233]
                        Specific groups
                              Insects
                                   In general
                                         --ONLY group in which the male helps to prepare something for the young (one of the two groups of dung beetles of the family Scarabaeidae) [234]
                                         --ONLY species that builds a palisade around the eggs (the moth Aesiocopa patulana) [cp. # 420] [235]
                                         --Egg-carrying males [236]
                                         --Care of the young [237]
                                         --Fertilization by means of more than one copulation [238]
                                         --Spawning above the water line in species in which both the larva and the adult are aquatic [239]
                                    Specific groups
                                            Order Isoptera (termites)
                                                   --Surviving the nuptial flight [240]
                                                   --In-flight coming together of the couple [241]
                                             Order Hymenoptera
                                                   In general
                                                         --Spawning in the water [242]
                                                   Specific groups
                                           Ants
                                                 --Nesting in places other than underground [243]
                                           Solitary bees
                                                 --same [244]
                     
                  Echinoderms
                        Starfish
                              --Care of the eggs [245]

(...)